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Jeremy Gardette

Jérémy Gardette


jeremy.gardette@univ-smb.fr

LPNC
Vision & Emotion Team
PhD : A representational approach to medial temporal lobe functions and pathologies

PhD Supervisor : Pascal Hot (Pr.)

Research overview

The traditional view in neuropsychology associates the medial temporal lobe (MTL) with memory, whereas more posterior regions are usually associated with perception. Further, the hippocampus would be responsible for the process of recollection, or the rich and contextualised retrieval of a memory. In contrast, familiarity, or the feeling that something (such as a face or a place) has been encountered before, without remembering the context in which it happened, would rely on the perirhinal cortex (PRC). In this view, the MTL would be functionally organised according to distinct mnemonic processes. In the last decade, however, there has been growing evidence questioning the traditional view, and supporting an alternative account, leading to the representational view of occipito-temporal areas (Bussey & Saksida, 2007). This view argues that high-level cognitive processes such as recollection and familiarity are too complex to be explicative of neurocognitive functioning, and must rather be considered as the phenomena to explain. The authors thus propose to break down such processes into representations and operations (Cowell, Sadil, and Barense, 2019). The operation involved in recollection is pattern-completion, or the reconstruction of a stimulus from a partial cue. The representation involved in recollection is complex and associative, and traditionally includes a spatial layout, or a scene. When breaking cognitive processes into operations and representations, two hypotheses appear : A representation- and an operation-based accounts. Experimental evidence tend to support the representational account, as it has been demonstrated through fMRI scanning that the engagement of the hippocampus in recollection depends on the representation processed rather than on the reconstructive nature of the retrieval (Ross et al, 2018). However, this demonstration only concerns pattern-completion, while other operations still need to be investigated. My PhD aims at
- Replicating the results from Ross and colleagues (not replicated so far).
- Extending these results to other operations such as familiarity-based recognition, and visual discrimination.
- To overcome methodological limitations associated with fMRI by applying a Machine-Learning method to fMRI data (Multivariate-Pattern Analysis - MVPA).
- Exploring how left and right MTL regions differentially contribute to complex visual perception tasks by investigating patients with unilateral MTL lesions.

Teaching

1st year : Introduction to experimental methodology (Tutorials USMB)
1st year : Introduction to cognitive and social psychology (Tutorials USMB)
2nd year : Main cognitive functions (Tutorials USMB)
2nd year : Cognition & Memory (Tutorials USMB)
Master’s : Memory and its deficits (Neuropsychology Master’s Lectures USMB)